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X-ray Physics
For Student Groups

How are X-rays generated? What makes X-rays so special, and where are they applied?
This course focusses on the measurement and analysis of X-ray spectra using a classical setup for Bragg-diffraction. Full day courses cover additional experiments of X-ray application in medicine and technology.

Book X-ray Physics

16 to 21 years
0.5 to 1 day
Maximum number of participants


  • Measurement of X-ray spectra
  • Determination of the energy of characteristic X-ray emission from Fe, Cu, Mo and W
  • Experimental measurement of Planck’s constant
  • Proof of Moseley’s law
  • X-ray imaging an radiation therapy in medicine (in full day course)
  • X-ray crystallography with different techniques (Bragg-Brentano, Debye-Scherrer, Laue)

The participants use a classical setup for Bragg-diffraction to measure X-ray spectra at varying acceleration voltage. Bases on the conservation of energy, they experimentally determine the value for Planck’s constant. They measure the energy of the characteristic X-ray emission from anodes of Fe, Cu, Mo, and W, and discuss the results in view of the electronic structure of these elements and the fundamentals of quantum mechanics.

In full day courses, the participants additionally carry out experiments relevant for the application of X-rays in medicine (doses rates, material dependent absorption, X-ray imaging, X-ray computed tomography) or science and technology (X-ray crystallography according to Bragg-Brentano, Debye-Scherrer, Laue) and get insights into recent innovations.

If desired, the Bragg-diffraction at crystals can be introduced with a corresponding experiment using microwaves.


Structure of atoms: charged particles, electronic shell, nucleus
Solids and Semiconductors
Waves and radiation in medicine and IT
Waves and quanta